Abu Ubaidah then moved against Aleppo, with Khalid, as usual, commanding the cavalry. Abu Ubaida sent Amr bin al-As, Yazid bin Abu Sufyan, and Sharjeel bin Hassana back to their areas to reconquer them; most submitted without a fight. During his reign, at the time of appointment, every officer was required to swear an oath: Caliph Umar himself followed the above postulates strictly.
Rashidun Caliphate Timeline Timeline Description: The Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661), which means "Rightly Guided" in Arabic, is the term for the first four caliphs after Muhammad.
When Persia was conquered, three types of coins were current there: the Baghli, of eight dang; Tabari of four dang; and Maghribi of three dang. A beginning was made with the Quraish and the Ansar and the system was gradually extended to the whole of Arabia and to Muslims of conquered lands. The military was brought directly under state control and into its pay. Within a few weeks, he decided to defeat them piecemeal in order to avoid the risk of defeat by a large unified Persian army. Within a short span of time, the Arab armies defeated a major Sasanian counter-attack in the Battle of Jalūlā', as well as other engagements at Qasr-e Shirin, and Masabadhan. The taxes (including zakāt and jizya) collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. The Rashidun Caliphate expanded steadily; within the span of 24 years, a vast territory was conquered comprising Mesopotamia, the Levant, parts of Anatolia, and most of the Sasanian Empire. Umar also granted salaries to the army. The Rashidun army, under the command of Umar's appointed general Nu'man ibn Muqarrin al-Muzani, attacked and again defeated the Persian forces.
Before Umar died, he appointed a committee of six men to decide on the next caliph, and charged them with choosing one of their own numbers.
Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani has said that the leader of the Muslims should simply be from the majority. During the first half of his reign, he was the most popular caliph among all the Rashiduns, while in the later half of his reign he met increasing opposition, led by the Egyptians and concentrated around Ali, who would albeit briefly, succeed Uthman as caliph. In 661, Ali was assassinated by Ibn Muljam as part of a Kharijite plot to assassinate all the different Islamic leaders in an attempt to end the civil war, but the Kharijites failed to assassinate Mu'awiya and 'Amr ibn al-'As.
The prisoners taken in the battle informed them about Emperor Heraclius's plans to take back Syria. The army was destroyed in the battle of Maraj-al-Rome and the second battle of Damascus. He also consolidated Syria, previously divided into two provinces, into one. The judicial administration, like the rest of the administrative structure of the Rashidun Empire, was set up by Umar, and it remained basically unchanged throughout the duration of the Caliphate. After the Battle of Yarmouk and Battle of al-Qadisiyyah the Muslims won heavy spoils, filling the coffers at Medina. Uthman was from the Umayyad clan of the Quraish.
A campaign was undertaken against Nubia during the Caliphate of Umar in 642, but failed after the Makurians won the First Battle of Dongola. Imitation of Sasanid Empire ruler Khosrau II type. In the Dar-ul-Amarat quarters, government offices and residences for officers were sited. He was assisted by Abdur Rahman bin Awf and Muiqib.
He prevented the recently converted Muslims from dispersing, kept the community united, and consolidated Islamic grip on the region by containing the Ridda, while extending the Dar Al Islam all the way to the Red Sea. Hauberks and large wooden or wickerwork shields were also used as protection in combat. The area of Basra was very sparsely populated when it was conquered by the Muslims.  He thereafter also sent four armies to invade the Roman province of Syria, but the decisive operation was only undertaken when Khalid, after completing the conquest of Iraq, was transferred to the Syrian front in 634.. , Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest.
Al-Asqalani used two ayahs from the Qur'an to justify this: And they (the sinners on qiyama) will say, "Our Lord! Ghanimah or Khums represented war booty, four-fifths of which was distributed among serving soldiers, while one-fifth was allotted to the state. When Usama spoke about that to Allah's Apostle Allah's Apostle said: "Do you try to intercede for somebody in a case connected with Allah’s Prescribed Punishments?"
Khalid was recognized and eventually, Caliph Umar ibn Al Khattab came and Jerusalem surrendered in April 637. War(fare) & Battles Traditional Sunni Islamic lawyers agree that shura, loosely translated as “consultation of the people”, is a function of the caliphate. The job of adjudicating orthodoxy and Islamic law was left to Islamic lawyers, judiciary, or specialists individually termed as Mujtahids and collectively named the Ulema. Demands to take revenge for the assassination of Caliph Uthman rose among parts of the population, and a large army of rebels led by Zubayr, Talha and the widow of Muhammad, Aisha, set out to fight the perpetrators. Rather than just relying on impeachment, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani obliged rebellion upon the people if the caliph began to act with no regard for Islamic law.
Whether or not he intended a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history.
In the time of Muhammad there was no permanent Bait-ul-Mal or public treasury. During the conquest of Egypt the area of Fustat was used by the Muslim army as a base. Several companions, most prominent among them being Ali ibn Abi Talib, initially refused to acknowledge his authority. The problem before Umar was what to do with this money.
Sunnis also equate this system with the worldly success that was promised by Allah, in the Quran and hadith, to those Muslims who pursued His pleasure; this spectacular success has further added to the emulatory appeal of the Rashidun era.. The names of the first four caliphs inscribed at the dome of New Mosque in Eminönü, Istanbul.
The apostasy of al-Yamama was led by another supposed prophet, Musaylimah, who arose before Muhammad's death; other centers of the rebels were in the Najd, Eastern Arabia (known then as al-Bahrayn) and South Arabia (known as al-Yaman and including the Mahra). One suggestion was to distribute it equally on an ad hoc basis. Umar summoned a meeting of his Consultative Assembly and sought the opinion of the Companions about the disposal of the money. Ibn Kathir, "al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah", part 7. https://archive.org/download/MaarifulQuran/Introduction.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rashidun&oldid=985026184, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 14:40. He was assisted by Abdur Rahman bin Awf and Muiqib. The committee narrowed down the choices to two: Uthman and Ali. The new buildings were constructed from mud bricks instead of reeds, a material that was popular in the region, but caught fire easily.
Select: all / none. Soon thereafter, Ali dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides, such as Malik al-Ashtar and Salman the Persian. Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which was tasked with producing copies of the Quran based on text that had been gathered separately on parchment, bones and rocks during the lifetime of Muhammad and also on a copy of the Quran that had been collated by Abu Bakr and left with Muhammad's widow after Abu Bakr's death. A Qadi (Islamic judge) was also not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of religion, gender, colour, kinship or prejudice.
 However, after six months the group made peace with Abu Bakr and Ali offered him his fealty.
Abu Bakr was called As-Siddiq (Arabic: اَلـصِّـدِّيْـق, "The Truthful"), and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims.
, Troubles emerged soon after Muhammad's death, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state.
A separate building was constructed for the royal treasury, the bait ul maal, which, in large cities, was protected by as many as 400 guards.
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