In: Brown MJ, Sharma P, Mir FA, Bennett PN, eds.
The risk of poisoning is higher for children and particularly for pets. If someone has eaten part of a mistletoe plant: Take all the pieces out of their mouth. Haydock S. Poisoning, overdose antidotes. Donate to the NNEPC, your source for poison help. Am J Emerg Med. This is a free and confidential service. Scientific Name(s): Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) No evidence of effect can be shown. Symptoms last for 1 to 3 days and may require a hospital stay. The poisonous ingredient is found in all parts of the plant, but especially in the leaves. © 2020 All Rights Reserved 12th ed. Clinical efficacy has not been established. The leaves and berries contain the highest concentration of toxic chemicals. Other varieties bear red berries.1, 2, Mistletoe preparations have been used medicinally in Europe for centuries to treat epilepsy, infertility, hypertension, and arthritis. Poison centers report toxicity of the whole plant, but especially mistletoe berries. Copyright 1997-2020, A.D.A.M., Inc.
They are pollinated by insects and bear small white berries on evergreen foliage. Three of the 11 patients who swallowed 1-5 leaves developed gastrointestinal upset.
Updated by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Emeritus, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. Mistletoe is harmful to eat.
Swallowing American mistletoe can cause symptoms such as gastrointestinal upset but is not likely to cause serious poisoning if small amounts are unintentionally swallowed. In: Brown MJ, Sharma P, Mir FA, Bennett PN, eds. Phoradendron species contain a toxin called phoratoxin, which can cause blurred vision, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood pressure changes, and even death. European mistletoe is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.
What should I do if someone has mistletoe poisoning? A 3-year-old boy ate 1-2 berries and leaves but didn't have any symptoms.
Mistletoe is a hemiparasitic plant that grows on a wide variety of host trees such as pine, oak, birch, and apple. Clinical Pharmacology. 1996;34:405-8. Adult supervision is pivotal for safe holidays. Yes. The viscotoxin profile of subspecies album did not vary appreciably with 7 different hosts. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.
His father, who witnessed the event, called Poison Control. The plant is not recommended for patients who have leukemia, brain tumors, or malignant lymphoma or for lactating or pregnant women. It uses its special root-like organs (haustoria) to steal nutrients, water and minerals from its host. The poisonous ingredient is found in all parts of the plant, but especially in the leaves. There are several subspecies and varieties of mistletoe, which are defined by the host that they parasitize. Haydock S. Poisoning, overdose antidotes. If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.
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